Working my way through an issue with a laptop that started BSOD rebooting after install of Windows Update KB2670838. Apparently hybrid video solutions (Intel on CPU video and ATI/Nvidia GPU) on laptops are a common on some laptops release in the last few years.
If you can stay booted long enough, try removing the update in Programs and Features under Installed Updates. This should work in Safe Mode too, but if you have to remove Intel HD or ATI drivers, you will not be able to in safe mode, due to their installer methods.
Fair warning if any laptops start acting up, especially in droves. Time frame is roughly the end of February 2013 when this update started being pushed out by updates.
EDIT: I think a another person I know is experiencing this. Having them just try the update removal, because I think the other person’s PC is also reacting to a USB DisplayPort docking station.